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(Daily work is also available as a download in the documents section)

1.     Describe an atom, its parts, and what causes an ion and isotope
a.    An atom is made up of Protons and Neutrons in the Nucleus and electrons surrounding the nucleus in a cloud
b.    Ions are created by a change in the number of electrons; positive ions are created by losing an electron, negative ions are created by gaining an electron
2.    Explain how atoms, elements, mixtures, and solutions are related
a.    Atoms are the most basic unit of life
b.    Multiple atoms of the same chemical make-up (pure) create elements
c.    Two or more different elements make up a mixture or compound
d.    The combination of different compounds makes a solution
3.    Give the chemical make up of water and it’s important properties
a.    H2O
                                         i.    Cohesion
                                        ii.    Adhesion
                                      iii.    Temperature moderation
                                       iv.    Universal solvent
                                        v.    Ice floating
4.    Explain the three types of bonding
a.    Ionic- the transfer of electrons
b.    Covalent- the sharing of electrons
c.    Hydrogen- a weak bond caused by the attraction to hydrogen due to its more positive charge
5.    Describe the pH scale and what causes an acid, base, and neutral pH
6.    Give the 4 macromolecules including what they are made up of and an example of each
a.    Proteins:  Made up of Amino Acids- Ex. Hair
b.    Carbohydrates: Made of monosaccharide- Ex. Starch
c.    Lipids: Made up of Hydrocarbon chains- Ex. Oil
d.    Nucleic Acid: Made of nucleotides- Ex. DNA
7.    Give the major characteristics of an enzyme and how enzyme affect chemical reactions
a.    An enzyme is a protein
b.    Enzymes speed up chemical reactions
c.    Enzymes lower activation energy
d.    Enzymes can be denatured
8.    Explain chemical reactions, including:
a.     What happens to the reactant to create a product
                                         i.    Reactants react with each other to create a product, reactants are rearranged to create a product
b.    The process of a dehydration and hydrolysis reaction
9.    Explain what causes denaturation and what that might do to a cell or our bodies
a.    pH change
b.    Temperature change
10. Explain the difference between a prokaryote and eukaryote
a.    Prokaryote:  A cell that lacks a nucleus
b.    Eukaryote: A cell that contains a nucleus
11.  Explain the role of the cell membrane, include;
a.    The chemical make up
                              Phosphate: Hydrophilic (water loving)
                          Lipid: Hydrophobic (water avoiding)
b.    What membrane proteins do
                                         i.    Transport
                                        ii.    Communicate
                                      iii.    Enzyme activities
c.    Molecule movement (diffusion, passive & active transport, osmosis)
                                         i.    Diffusion: The movement of particles from low concentration to high concentration
                                        ii.    Osmosis: The movement of water from low concentration to high concentration
                                      iii.    Active transport: The movement of molecules against their concentration gradient using a membrane protein and energy in the form of ATP
12. Explain the function of:
a.    Nucleus: Stores DNA
b.    Mitochondria: Cellular Respiration
c.    Chloroplast: Photosynthesis
d.    Cell wall: Maintain shape of plant cell
e.    Lysosome: Breaks down macromolecules
f.    Ribosome: Create proteins from DNA
g.    ER: Creates cell parts
h.    Golgi apparatus: Packages and Ships cell parts
13. Give major differences between plant and animal cells
a.    A plant cell has a cell wall and chloroplast
14. Show the equation, reactants and products, and location of process for both cellular respiration and photosynthesis
a.    C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38 ATP
b.    Sunlight + 6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
15. Describe the parts of ATP and how they store energy
a.    ATP stores energy in the triphosphate portion of the tail with the most energy stored between the 2nd and 3rd phosphates in the bond
16. Explain the process of the electron transport chain and how it is used in both cellular respiration and photosynthesis.
a.    The high energy electrons fall through the chain to pump hydrogen ions across the membrane to then run through ATP synthase to create ATP
17. Explain why oxygen is important to cellular respiration and what happens when it is removed
a.    Without oxygen then it would become fermentation and create less ATP
18. Explain the process of photosynthesis including what happens in each step and where the steps happen within the plant.
19. Explain how the plant uses the visible spectrum and what parts are used
a.    Plants absorb all parts of the spectrum except green light to split water to create high energy electrons and hydrogen ions to pass on to the rest of photosynthesis
20.Describe each and state what type of cell division including phase that the following are found:
a.    Chromatin: Unwound DNA – Interphase of both Mitosis and Meiosis
b.    Chromosomes: Compacted DNA – Anaphase of Mitosis and Anaphase 2 of Meiosis
c.    Sister chromatids: Duplicated Chromosomes- Prophase, metaphase of Mitosis and Prophase 2, metaphase 2 of Meiosis
d.    Homologous chromosomes: Tetrad- Prophase 1 and Metaphase 1 of meiosis
21. Explain the steps of the cell cycle and include the steps within interphase
a.    Interphase (G1 -> S-> G2->) M Phase (Prophase -> Metaphase -> Anaphase -> Telophase-> cytokinesis ->) -> interphase
22.Explain what cancer is and compare malignant and benign tumors
a.    Cancer: The sever disruption of the cell cycle caused by the missed checkpoints in G1 and G2 of interphase
b.    Benign: An abnormal mass or normal cells
c.    Malignant: An abnormal mass of Abnormal cells that may spread
23.Compare the products of mitosis and meiosis
                       Mitosis           Meiosis
          2 cells                           4 cells
          Identical DNA                Different DNA
               No crossing over             Crossing over
          1 stage                            2 stages
          Diploid                            Haploid
24.Describe the process of crossing over and why one type of cell division does crossing over and why the other type doesn’t.
a.    Crossing over is when homologous chromosomes trade portions of the same chromosome to create genetic diversity in meiosis.
b.    Crossing over doesn’t happen in mitosis because homologous chromosomes do not form and all body cells need to have the same combination of genes to create the correct cells.
25.Compare haploid and diploid
a.    Haploid: A single set of chromosomes found in gametes (sex cells)
b.    Diploid: 2 sets of chromosomes found in cells at the end of mitosis
26.Show the continuum from atom to cell division and how each of our units has built on the previous unit. 

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